Retirement Services

401(k) Plans

A retirement plan that accepts employee contributions, and oftentimes matches them, 401(k) plans come in many shapes and sizes. Traditional, tax-deferred 401(k) contributions are made before income taxes are applied, and earnings and contributions are not taxable until they are withdrawn. Roth 401(k) contributions are made with after-tax dollars, but withdrawals, including earnings, are tax-free if certain conditions are met.

  • Advantages
    • Participant deferral of current income taxes is available or pre-payment of income taxes when using the Roth option
    • Automatic Contribution Arrangement feature is available
    • Elective Automatic Contribution Arrangements have six months after plan year-end to complete testing
    • Elective Automatic Contribution Arrangements have a 90-day window to return automatic deferral contributions to participants who failed to opt out of the plan
  • Eligibility
    • All taxable businesses and tax-exempt organizations (excluding government entities) may establish 401(k) Plans
    • Any employee with 1,000 hours of service within one year and who is age 21 or older must be covered; exclusions are permitted for certain employees
  • Maximum total plan contribution that the employer may deduct

    25% of total eligible payroll (maximum eligible pay per participant is $265,000) plus the amount of elective deferrals contributed

  • Maximum annual allocation to participant’s account

    100% of participant’s total pay or $53,0001, whichever is less

  • Maximum annual participant deferral (cannot exceed 100% of pay)

    Up to $18,0002; catch-up contribution of $6,000 if age 50 or older. Annual participant deferral can be before-tax, Roth after-tax or both, depending on plan terms

  • Required employer contribution

    Discretionary, unless the plan is top heavy3

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